Dr. ZHANG, Xuming
B.Eng., University of Science & Technology of China (USTC), CHINA
M.Eng., Shanghai Institute of Optics &Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CHINA
M.Eng., National University of Singapore (NUS), SINGAPORE
Ph.D., Nanyang Technological University, SINGAPORE
Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University
– AP20015 Physics in Radiological Science (Sem1)
– AP30010 Radiation Physics (Sem2)
– AP40004 Final-year projects (coordinator)
– Optofluidic devices and systems
– Photocatalysis, artificial photosynthesis
– Water purification, microfluidic reactors
– Micro-optics and nano-photonics
1. Ning Wang and Xuming Zhang, “Chapter 16. Microfluidic Photocatalysis”, in Optical MEMS, nanophotonics, and their applications, ed. Guangya Zhou and Chengkuo Lee, Taylor and Francis, 2017.
2. X. M. Zhang, Photonic MEMS devices – design, fabrication and control, Ch. 5-8, ed. A. Q. Liu, Taylor-Francis, 2008.
Journal Publications (selected)
2. Tenghao Li, Qingming Chen, Weixing Yu, And Xuming Zhang*, Planar polarization-routing optical cross-connects using nematic liquid crystal waveguides, Optics Express, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 402–418, 8 Jan 2018. Download
3. Xiaowen Huang, Jianchun Wang, Tenghao Li, Jianmei Wang, Min Xu, Weixing Yu, Abdel El Abed, and Xuming Zhang*, Review on optofluidic microreactors for artificial photosynthesis, Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 30 - 41, 04 January 2018. Download
4. Shenghuang Lin, Yang Liu, Zhixin Hu, Wei Lu, Chun Hin Mak, Longhui Zeng, Jiong Zhao, Yanyong Li, Feng Yan, Yuen Hong Tsang, Xuming Zhang, Shu Ping Lau, Tunable active edge sites in PtSe2 films towards hydrogen evolution reaction, Nano Energy, vol. 42, pp. 26-33, December 2017. Download
5. Xiaoqiang Zhu, Li. Liang, Yunfeng Zuo, Xuming Zhang and Yi Yang*, Tunable visible cloaking using the natural liquid diffusion, Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol. 11, no. 6, November 2017. Download
6. Hai L. Liu, Xiao Q. Zhu, Li Liang, Xuming Zhang, and Yi Yang, Tunable transformation optical waveguide bends in liquid, Optica, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 839-846, 25 July 2017. Download
7. Sainan Ma, Longlui Zeng, Lili Tao, Chun Yin Tang, Huiyu Yuan, Hui Long, Ping Kwong Cheng, Yang Chai, Chuan sheng Chen, Kin Hung Fung, Xuming Zhang, Shu Ping Lau and Yuen Hong Tsang*, Enhanced photocatalytic activity of WS2 film by laser drilling to produce porous WS2/WO3 heterostructure, Scientific Report, vol. 7, paper no. 3125, 9 June 2017. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-03254-2. Download
8. Xiaowen Huang, Huimin Hao, Yang Liu, Yujiao Zhu and Xuming Zhang*, Rapid screening of graphitic carbon nitrides for photocatalytic cofactor regeneration using a drop reactor, Micromachines, vol. 8, no. 6, paper 175, 2 June 2017. doi:10.3390/mi8060175. Download
9. Furui Tan, Ning Wang, Dang Yuan Lei, Weixing Yu and Xuming Zhang*, Plasmonic black absorbers for enhanced photocurrent of visible-light photocatalysis, Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 5, no. 1, paper 1600399, 19 January 2017. (Back cover) DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600399. Download
10. Ning Wang*, Furui Tan, Chi Chung Tsoi and Xuming Zhang*, Photoelectrocatalytic microreactor for seawater decontamination with negligible chlorine generation, Microsystem Technologies, vol. 1-6, 21 November 2016. Download
11. Wei Wu, Xiaoqiang Zhu, Yunfeng Zuo, Li Liang, Shunping Zhang, Xuming Zhang, and Yi Yang*, Precise sorting of gold nanoparticles in a flowing system, ACS Photonics, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 2497–2504, 7 November 2016. DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00737. Download
12. You-Ling Chen, Wei-Liang Jin, Yun-Feng Xiao, and Xuming Zhang*, Charge measurement of a single dielectric nanoparticle with a high-Q optical microresonator, Physical Review Applied, vol. 6, paper no. 044021, 28 October 2016. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.6.044021. Download
13. Furui Tan, Tenghao Li, Ning Wang, Sin Ki Lai, Chi Chung Tsoi, Weixing Yu, Xuming Zhang*, Rough gold films as broadband absorbers for plasmonic enhancement of TiO2 photocurrent over 400 – 800 nm, Scientific Reports, vol. 6, paper no. 33049, 9 Sep 2016. DOI: 10.1038/srep33049. Download
14. Xiaowen Huang, Jian Liu, Qingjing Yang, Yang Liu, Yujiao Zhu, Tenghao Li, Yuen Hong Tsang, and Xuming Zhang*, Microfluidic chip-based one-step fabrication of artificial photosystem I for photocatalytic cofactor regeneration, RSC Advances, vol. 6, no. 104, pp. 101974 – 101980, 11 Oct 2016. DOI: 10.1039/C6RA21390A. Download
15. Ning Wang, Furui Tan, Yu Zhao, Chi Chung Tsoi, Xudong Fan, Weixing Yu & Xuming Zhang*, Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions, Scientific Reports, vol. 6, paper no. 28928, 29 Jun 2016. DOI:10.1038/srep28928. Download
16. Yong Yuan, Tuan Guo*, Xuhui Qiu, Jiahuan Tang, Yunyun Huang, Li Zhuang, Shungui Zhou, Zhaohui Li, Bai-Ou Guan, Xuming Zhang, and Jacques Albert, Electrochemical surface plasmon resonance fiber-optic sensor: in situ detection of electroactive biofilms, Analytical Chemistry, vol. 88, no. 15, pp. 7609–7616. 23 May 2016. Download
17. Qingming Chen, Aoqun Jian, Zhaohui Li*, and Xuming Zhang*, Optofluidic tunable lenses using laser-induced thermal gradient, Lab on a Chip, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 104 – 111, 07 Jan 2016. (Inside back cover). DOI: 10.1039/C5LC01163A. Download Video of focusing
18. Wuxia Liao, Ning Wang, Taisheng Wang, Jia Xu, Xudong Han, Zhenyu Liu, Xuming Zhang*, and Weixing Yu*, Biomimetic microchannels of planar reactors for optimized photocatalytic efficiency of water purification, Biomicrofluidics, vol. 10, paper no. 014123, Jan 2016. Download. (Highlighted in Facebook, 1 March 2016. https://www.facebook.com/Biomicrofluidics/posts/10153504726343736.
19. Xiaowen Huang, Yujiao Zhu, Xuming Zhang*, Zhiyong Bao, Dang Yuan Lei, Weixing Yu, Jiyan Dai, Yu Wang, Clam-inspired nanoparticle immobilization method using adhesive tape as microchip substrate, Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, vol. 222, pp. 106 – 111, Jan 2016. Download (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2015.08.069, highlighted by Advances in Engineering, on 29 April 2016, https://advanceseng.com/applied-physics/clam-inspired-nanoparticle-immobilization-method-using-adhesive-tape-microchip-substrate/).
20. Tenghao Li, Qingming Chen, Yunfeng Xiao and Xuming Zhang*, Variable optical delay line using discrete harmonic oscillation in waveguide lattices, Journal of Lightwave Technology (in press).
21. Xiaowen Huang, Yujiao Zhu, Xuming Zhang*, Zhiyong Bao, Dang Yuan Lei, Weixing Yu, Jiyan Dai, Yu Wang, Clam-inspired nanoparticle immobilization method using adhesive tape as microchip substrate, Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, vol. 222, pp. 106 – 111, 18 August 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2015.08.069
22. Y. Bao, X. W. Yi, Z. H. Li*, Q. M. Chen, J. P. Li, X. D. Fan and X. M. Zhang*, A digitally generated ultrafine optical frequency comb for spectral measurements with 0.01-pm resolution and 0.7-μs response time, Light: Science& Applications, vol. 4, paper no. e300, 19 June 2015.
23. F. R. Wang, G. Q. Zhang, Z. Zhao, H. Q. Tan, W. X. Yu, X. M. Zhang and Z. C. Sun, TiO2 nanosheet array thin film for self-cleaning coating, RSC Advances, vol. 5, no. 13, pp. 9861 – 9864, 06 Jan 2015.
24. N. Wang, F. R. Tan, L. Wan, M. C. Wu and X. M. Zhang*, Microfluidic reactors for visible-light photocatalytic water purification assisted with thermolysis, Biomicrofluidics, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 054122, 24 October 2014.
25. S. Y. Cao, C. S. Chen*, T. G. Liu, Y. H. Tsang*, X. M. Zhang, W. W. Yu, and W. W. Chen, Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/a-Bi2Mo3O12@ b-Bi2O3 heterojunctions by organic electrolytes assisted UV-excited method, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 257, pp. 309–316, 2014.
26. S. Y. Cao, W. X. Yu, T. S. Wang, H. H. Shen, X. D. Han, W. B. Xu, and X. M. Zhang, Meta-microwindmill structure with multiple absorption peaks for the detection of ketamine and amphetamine type stimulants in terahertz domain, Optical Materials Express, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1876 – 1884, 1 September 2014.
27. C. Y. Tang, X. M. Zhang, Y. Chai, L. Hui, L. L. Tao, and Y. H. Tsang*, Controllable parabolic lensed liquid-core optical fiber by using electrostatic force, Optics Express, vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 20948 – 20953, 25 August 2014.
28. A. Q. Jian, L. L. Deng, S. B. Sang, Q. Q. Duan, X. M. Zhang, W. D. Zhang, Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on an angled optical fiber, IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 3229 – 3235, September 2014.
29. C. Y. Tang, G. X. Bai, K. L. Jim, X. M. Zhang, K. H. Fung, Y. Chai, Y. H. Tsang, J. Q. Yao, and D. G. Xu, Lensed water-core teflon-amorphous fluoroplastics optical fiber, Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 32, no. 8, pp.1538 – 1542, 15 April 2014.
30. N. Wang, X. M. Zhang*, Y. Wang, W. X. Yu and Helen L. W. Chan, Microfluidic reactors for photocatalytic water purification, Lab on a Chip, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1074 – 1082, 21 March 2014.
31. S. Y. Cao, W. X. Yu, L. T. Zhang, C. Wang, X. M. Zhang, and Y. Q. Fu, Broadband efficient light absorbing in the visible regime by a metananoring array, Annalen der Physik, vol. 526, no. 1–2, pp. 112–117, January 2014.
32. A. Q. Jian, and X. M. Zhang, Resonant optical tunneling effect: Recent progress in modeling and applications, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (invited review), vol. 19, no. 3, paper no. 9000310, May/June 2013.
33. X. M. Zhang, Y. L. Chen, R-S Liu and D. P. Tsai, Plasmonic Photocatalysis, Reports on Progress in Physics, vol. 76, no. 4, paper no. 046401, April 2013.
34. G. X. Bai, Y. H. Tsang, K. L. Jim, and X. M. Zhang, UV-curable liquid-core fiber lenses with controllable focal length, Optics Express, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5505–5510, 27 February 2013.
35. C. Pang, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, A.K. Gupta, and K.M. Bryden, Multifunctional optical MEMS sensor platform with heterogeneous fiber optic Fabry–Pérot sensors for wireless sensor networks, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 188, pp. 471–480, Dec 2012.
36. A. Q. Jian, K. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. P. Lau, Y. H. Tsang, X. M. Zhang, Microfluidic flow direction control using continuous-wave laser, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 329–334, Dec 2012. (Acknowledged projects: A-PD1S, G-YH81, B-Q26F (i.e., 5327/11E))
37. Z. F. Chen, Z. H. Yong, C. W. Leung, X. M. Zhang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. W. Chan, Y. Wang, Time-variant 1D photonic crystals using flowing microdroplets, Optics Express, vol. 20, no. 22, paper no. 24330, 22 Oct 2012.
38. N. Wang, M. Feng, Z. Q. Feng, M. Y. Lam, L. Gao, B. Chen, A. Q. Liu, Y. H. Tsang and X. M. Zhang, Narrow-linewidth tunable lasers with retro-reflective external cavity, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1591 – 1593, 15 Sep 2012.
39. N. Wang, X. M. Zhang, B. L. Chen, W. Z. Song, N. Y. Chan, and Helen L. W. Chan, Microfluidic photoelectrocatalytic reactors for water purification with integrated visible-light source, Lab on a Chip, vol. 12, no. 20, pp. 3983–3990, 27 July 2012. (Acknowledged projects: 1-ZV5K, A-PM21 and A-PL16, B-Q26F)
40. Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. K. Chin, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, C. L. Lin, C. Lu, G. P. Wang and N. I. Zheludev, Optofluidic waveguide as a transformation optics device for lightwave bending and manipulation, Nature Communications, vol. 3, paper no. 651, 31 January 2012.
41. Y. H. Fu, A. Q. Liu, W. M. Zhu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, J. B. Zhang, T. Mei, J. F. Tao, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, J. H. Teng, N. I. Zheludev, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, A micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial via reconfiguration of asymmetric split-ring resonators, Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 21, no. 18, pp. 3589–3594, Aug 2011.
42. A. Q. Jian, X. M. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, and A. Q. Liu, Liquid refractive index sensors using resonant optical tunneling effect for ultra-high sensitivity, Sensors and Actuators A Physical, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 347-351, October 2011. (Acknowledged projects: A-PD1S, G-YH81, 1-ZV5K)
43. N. Wang, L. Lei, X. M. Zhang, Y. H. Tsang, Y. Chen, and Helen L.W. Chan, A comparative study of preparation methods of nanoporous TiO2 films for microfluidic photocatalysis, Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 2797–2799, August 2011. (reported to AP by Peter) (Acknowledged projects: A-PD1S, G-YH81, G-YH91)
44. W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes, Advanced Materials, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1792–1796, 19 April 2011.
45. S. T. F. Lee, K. H. Lam, X. M. Zhang and H. L. W. Chan, High-frequency ultrasonic transducer based on lead-free BSZT piezoceramics, Ultrasonics, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 811-814, Oct 2011.
46. S. T. F. Lee, K. H. Lam, L. Lei, X. M. Zhang, and H. L. W. Chan, An integrated microfluidic chip with 40 MHz lead-free transducer for fluid analysis, Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 82, no. 2, paper no. 024903, 25 Feb 2011.
47. K. Zhang, A. Q. Jian, X. M. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Li, and H-Y Tam, Laser-induced thermal bubbles for microfluidic applications, Lab on a Chip, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1389-1395, 17 Feb 2011. (Acknowledged projects: A-PD1S, G-YH81, 1-ZV5K)
48. L. Lei, N. Wang, X. M. Zhang, Q. D. Tai, D. P. Tsai and Helen L.W. Chan, Optofluidic planar reactors for photocatalytic water treatment using solar energy, Biomicrofluidics, vol. 4, no. 4, paper no. 043004, 30 December 2010. (Photography used by a Nature Photonics review article “D. Erickson, D. Sinton and D. Psaltis, Optofluidics for energy applications, Nature Photonics, vol. 5, no. 10, Oct 2011.”) (Acknowledged projects: A-PD1S, G-YH81, 1-ZV5K)
49. A. Q. Jian, X. M. Zhang, W. M. Zhu, and M. Yu, Optofluidic refractometer using resonant optical tunneling effect, Biomicrofluidics, vol. 4, no. 4, paper no. 043008, 30 December 2010. (Acknowledged projects: A-PD1S, G-YH81, 1-ZV5K)
50. Z. G. Li, Y. Yang, X. M. Zhang A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, L. Cheng and Z. H. Li, Tunable visual color filter using microfluidic grating, Biomicrofluidics, vol. 4, no. 4, paper no. 043013, 30 December 2010.
51. Y. Chen, L. Lei, K. Zhang, J. Shi, L. Wang, H. Li, X. M. Zhang, Y. Wang, and Helen L. W. Chan, Optofluidic microcavities: dye-lasers and bio-sensors, Biomicrofluidics, vol. 4, no. 4, paper no. 043002, 30 December 2010.
52. Y. F. Yu, Y. H. Fu, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, T. Bourouina, T. Mei, Z. X. Shen, and D. P. Tsai, Pure angular momentum generator using a ring resonator, Optics Express, vol. 18, no. 21, pp. 21651-21662, 11 October 2010.
53. H. Cai, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, B. Liu, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo and D. L. Kwong, Discretely tunable micromachined injection-locked lasers, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 20, no. 8, paper no. 085018, 8 July 2010.
54. J. Q. Yu, Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. K. Chin and X. M. Zhang, Microfluidic droplet grating for reconfigurable optical diffraction, Optics Letters, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1890-1892, 1 June 2010.
55. H. Bae, X. M. Zhang, H. Liu and M. Yu, Miniature surface-mountable Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor constructed with a 45-degree angled fiber, Optics Letters, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1701-1703, 15 May 2010.
56. X. M. Zhang, Y. X. Liu, H. Bae, C. Pang, and M. Yu, Phase modulation with micromachined resonant mirrors for low-coherence fiber-tip pressure sensors, Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 26, pp. 23965–23974, 21 December 2009.
57. E. H. Khoo, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, E. P. Li, J. Li, D. Pinjala and B. S. Luk'yanchuk, Exact step-coupling theory for mode-coupling behavior in geometrical variation photonic crystal waveguides, Physical Review B, vol. 80, no. 3, paper no. 035101, 1 July 2009.
1. Xuming Zhang, Tenghao Li, and Qingming Chen, An optical switch and optical cross-connect device, China Patents of Invention, Application No. 201710851522.6, filed on 19 September 2017. (In Chinese: 张需明, 李腾浩, 陈庆明, 一种光开关及光交叉互连器件, 中国发明专利, 申请号201710851522.6, 申请时间2017年9月19日.)
2. Xuming Zhang, Tenghao Li, and Qingming Chen, An optical switch and optical cross-connect device, China Patents for Utility Models, Application No. 201721204407.1, filed on 19 September 2017. (In Chinese: 张需明, 李腾浩, 陈庆明, 一种光开关及光交叉互连器件, 中国实用新型专利, 申请号201721204407.1, 申请时间2017/09/19.)
3. Xuming Zhang, Tenghao Li, and Qingming Chen, An optical cross-connect device based on liquid crystal electro-optic waveguide, China Patents of Invention, Application No. 201710855251.1, filed on 20 September 2017. (In Chinese: 张需明, 李腾浩, 陈庆明, 一种基于液晶电光波导的光学交叉互连器件, 中国发明专利, 申请号201710855251.1, 申请时间2017年9月20日.)
4. Lei Gao, Bo Chen, Guangyong Zhang, Xuming Zhang, A type of external-cavity laser (In Chinese: 一种外腔激光器), China patent no. CN103004039B, 2015.
5. M. Yu, H. Bae, and X. M. Zhang, Ultra-miniature fiber-optic pressure sensor system and method of fabrication, US Patents 8,966,988 B2, 2015.
6. M. Yu, S. Nesson, Y. X. Liu and X. M. Zhang, Ultra-miniature fiber-optic pressure sensor array system, US patent 8,151,648, 2012.
7. A. Q. Liu, X. J. Liang, X. M. Zhang and Y. Sun, Cell analysis using laser with external cavity, US patent 7,767,444, 2010.
8. A. Q. Liu, V. M. Murukeshan, X. M. Zhang, and C. Lu, Optical crossconnect and mirror system, Singapore patent 95,730, 2006.
9. A. Q. Liu, V. M. Murukeshan，X. M. Zhang, and C. Lu, Optical crossconnect and mirror systems, US patent 6,788,843, 2004.
Honors and Awards
1. 2017, Best Paper Award, IMCO 2017 conference, 25 – 28 July 2017, Singapore.
2. 2016, Cheminas Best Poster Awards, ISMM 2016 conference, 30 May – 1 June 2016, Hong Kong.
3. 2014, Best Paper Award, Optofluidics 2014 conference, 28 - 30 Aug 2014, Guangzhou, China.
4. 2013, Best Poster Award, ICMAT2013 conference, 30 Jun – 5 Jul 2013, Singapore.
5. 2011, Best Paper Award, Optofluidics 2011 conference, 11 - 13 Dec 2011, Xi'an, China.
6. 2006, IES Prestigious Engineering Achievement Awards, Singapore.
7. 2006, Chinese State Award for Outstanding Self-Financed Students Abroad, Ministry of Education of China.
8. 2005, Singapore Millennium Foundation (SMF) Postdoctoral Fellow.
9. 2005, Young Inventor Awards, Asian Wall Street Journal, Hong Kong.
10. 2005, Gold Prize in CoE Technology Exhibition, Singapore.
11. 2003, Gold Prize in CoE Technology Exhibition, Singapore.
1. Benjamin Skuse, Waste not, want not, International Innovation, no. 148, 14 August 2014, pp. 66–68.
2. SPIE Newsroom, Optofluidic transformation optics for innovative devices, 24 October 2012. (DOI: 10.1117/2.1201210.004509).
3. David Pile, Photoelectrocatalysis - Improved efficiency, Nature Photonics, vol. 6, no. 10, Oct 2012, pp. 637.
4. Oliver Graydon, Laser-induced bubbles create valves and pumps, Nature Photonics, vol. 5, no. 5, May 2011, pp. 256.
5. Jason Socrates Bardi, Trapped sunlight cleans water, AIP press release, 10 Jan 2011. http://www.newswise.com/
6. Ovidiu Sandru, Photocatalysis-based water purifier uses sunlight to break down impurities, The Green Optimistic, 11 Jan 2011. http://www.greenoptimistic.com/.
7. Ben Coxworth, Microfluidics and sunlight combined to purify water, Gizmag, 16 Jan 2011. http://www.gizmag.com/
8. Daniel Burgess, MEMS structures used to injection-lock miniature laser, Photonics Spectra, pp. 16, Oct 2005.
9. “Miniaturized injection-locked laser using microelectromechanical systems technology,” published in Applied Physics Letters 87, 101101 (2005), has been selected for the September 12, 2005 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, http://www.vjnano.org.
10. "Tunable laser using micromachined grating with continuous wavelength tuning," published in Applied Physics Letters 85, 3684 (2004), has been selected for the November 15, 2004 issue of Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, http://scitation.aip.org/journals/doc/APPLAB-ft/vol_85/iss_17/3684_1-div0.html.
11. Manfred Lindinger, Laserlicht nach Belieben Ein winziger beweglicher Spiegel beeinflubt die Wellenlänge (English translation: Laser light at discretion), Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, pp. 32, 9 Feb 2004.
12. Tami Freeman, Optical attenuators get more from MEMS, 8 July 2002, fibers.org, http://fibers.org/articles/news/4/7/6/1.
13. Tami Freeman, Low-driving-voltage VOAs exploit MEMS, FibreSystems Europe, pp. 11, June 2002.
14. Sunny Bains, Fully integrated micromachine laser is tunable, WDM Solutions, pp. 10, July 2001.